Minimizing manicured grass isn’t the first thing that comes to mind when you think of improvements to a high-end golf course.
But Sailfish Point Golf Club on Hutchinson Island on Florida’s east coast, did just that. Now, butterflies have moved in where native grasses and flowers have been allowed to grow tall.
Across the state, on Sanibel Island, the Sanctuary Golf Club ripped out concrete cart paths and brought in beehives to help pollinate the local wildflowers.
In Skidaway, Ga., near Savannah, the Landings Club dug a new irrigation system to lower water consumption, and it built nesting areas for a native terrapin rescue program.
Golf courses and environmental initiatives haven’t always coexisted. But today, many course superintendents — the men and women who plan and maintain courses — hope to reshape that thinking.
Sustainability efforts are often “motivated by economics,” said Max Adler, the editorial director of Golf Digest. “The whole industry is seeing a correction away from the very manicured, overmanufactured look of golf—and at the same time what really motivates golf courses to pursue that look is the bottom line. The less water you use, the less grass grows, the less maintenance you have to cover.”
In the last 10 years, he said, many clubs have replaced manicured areas of their courses “with sand, with native floras and shrubs that exist naturally on the topography and just leave it. And it looks beautiful.”
“If you’re doing things that are economically sound, it’s often in line with what you are doing environmentally,” said James Murphy, an extension specialist in turf management at Rutgers University in New Jersey.
Players and residents also are demanding more eco-friendly practices.
“It’s very important to people now that the community they live in respects the environment and takes care of it,” said Kristen Cheskaty, a broker and a managing partner at Sailfish Point Realty in Stuart, Fla.
Because of that, golf communities in the United States and elsewhere in the world are focusing on things as varied as eliminating plastic and foam cups in their snack shops and reducing fertilizers and chemicals in the upkeep of the fairways.
“All the little things add up,” Mr. Adler said. “Even though it’s a small footprint for the day, over the course of the season it’s real. More importantly it sends a message to people’s minds that we want to be thoughtful and sensitive to the environment.”
Florida’s Sailfish Point has followed guidelines created by a not-for-profit environmental education organization called Audubon International, which offers a certification program for good golf-course management practices.
Sailfish Point — a private 532-acre waterfront development with 520 low-rise homes, condominiums and townhouses — is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, the Fort Pierce Inlet to the north, and the Indian River Lagoon to the west.
But in recent years, the lagoon has suffered from extensive algae blooms that most experts believe are related to discharge from Lake Okeechobeee, which is surrounded by farmland and polluted by fertilizer runoff.
Scott MacPhee, the director of golf course operations at Sailfish Point, said many residents were concerned about any role the golf course could play in contributing to such pollution.
“A lot of fingers could easily be pointed at our community and our operation, and I didn’t want that for our members,” Mr. MacPhee said. “Whether the blame is on golf courses, farms or septic tanks, ultimately, we all want to do the right thing and we all want clean water.”
More than 800 golf courses in the United States and 2,100 courses in 34 countries have been certified by Audubon International.
At Sailfish Point, earning the certificate took about two years. The work began in 2016 and included an environmental assessment and developing a wildlife and habitat management plan; reducing chemical use; and stepping up water conservation. In some areas, the golf course staff planted vegetation buffer zones, allowing growth of mangrove trees and aquatic plants to form a barrier between the golf course and waterways.
Mark Perry, the executive director at the Florida Oceanographic Society in Stuart, who has consulted with the staff at Sailfish Point, said that the development’s buffer zones are “good common practice to let the shoreline vegetation help absorb nutrients” that can be damaging to the environment.
Although Audubon International began the certification program around 30 years ago, a degree of confusion still exists about its relationship with the 114-year-old National Audubon Society, a nonprofit conservation group with the mission “to protect birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow.” The two are separate, unrelated entities.
In Georgia, Chris Steigelman, who oversees three of the six Audubon International-certified golf courses at the Landings, said the certification process included installing a more drought-tolerant turf grass with a deeper root zone and a more effective irrigation system, which cost more than million. Those steps have enabled the Landings to reduce water use by nearly 40 percent on its courses, he said.
The Landings, situated within tidal salt marshes and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, is also popular with native Diamondback Terrapins, which had a risky habit of depositing their eggs in golf course bunkers.
Carolyn McInerney, a local real estate agent who lives at the Landings, began the Diamondback Terrapin Rescue Project by placing the eggs in little flower pots on her back porch.
“Now, we have five different nest boxes built around the golf course with community signs telling people about the program, as well as terrapin hatchling release parties,” Mr. Steigelman said. “It’s become a big community project.”
In addition to the terrapin nests, the Landings has a system of bluebird boxes installed throughout its courses, monitored by community volunteers; pollinator gardens with native plantings for bees and butterflies; and a bird-cam to monitor owl, eagle and osprey nesting.
“People are looking for quality of life and that truly sells the island,” Ms. McInerney said. “More and more people are interested in nature.”
Meredith Welch moved to Skidaway Island in 2008 after working for 20 years in New York City. She said she had been attracted to a place where she could be outdoors all year
“When I became a resident here, I couldn’t believe I could sit in my backyard and watch hawks, fox, deer and an amazing parade of animals walk through because there are no fences between neighbors,” she said.
After seeing the benefits of certification for the golf courses at the Landing, Ms. Welch helped start an effort to get Audubon certification for the city’s residential section, a process that took five years.
“We have a right to clean water and clean air,” Ms. Welch said. “And we can learn that we should protect things that are fragile and precious.”
In southwest Florida, the Sanctuary stands out for its location.
The community and its course, which has been certified by Audubon International, are surrounded by the 6,300-acre J.N. Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge — home to more than 300 species of birds, 50 species of reptiles and more than 30 mammal species. Two-thirds of the island is protected land.
“If you’re going to be buying real estate on Sanibel Island, you’ve already bought into the environmental side of things and you probably already get it,” said Kyle Sweet, the superintendent at the Sanctuary Golf Club, the island’s only private course.
Mr. Sweet not only maintains his course to Audubon International standards, but he also is guided by the wildlife refuge, as well as by rigid city requirements. Water quality and chemical nutrient loads are regularly monitored and the city issues an annual grade.
Even residences are regulated in regard to impermeable surfaces, such as driveways. The Sanctuary has removed more than a mile and a half of concrete cart paths from the course.
The course has also converted to hardier, salt-tolerant turf grass and upgraded its irrigation system for a 30 percent savings in water use.
“We have a lot of members who are on the board at the Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation and Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge,” said Kathryn Riggio, the membership coordinator at the Sanctuary. “They are very invested in our environmental responsibility.”
After Dr. Wendy Kindig, a Sanctuary resident and golf club member, retired from her clinical nephrology practice, she got involved in enviromental efforts at the Sanctuary, as well as on the board of the “Ding” Darling Wildlife Society.
“Conservation is pretty ingrained in this community,” she said.B:
吉利平码平特肖论坛【在】【守】【卫】【的】【带】【领】【下】，【选】【好】【宝】【物】【的】【李】【昂】【被】【安】【排】【在】【了】【属】【于】【他】【的】【房】【间】【之】【中】。 【至】【于】【奥】【丁】，【则】【重】【新】【回】【到】【自】【己】【的】【宫】【殿】，【再】【次】【和】【洛】【基】【以】【及】【索】【尔】【见】【面】。 【对】【于】【这】【三】【人】【之】【间】【的】【谈】【话】【李】【昂】【并】【没】【有】【兴】【趣】，【也】【没】【有】【参】【合】【的】【必】【要】。 【回】【到】【房】【间】【之】【中】，【李】【昂】【便】【迫】【不】【及】【待】【的】【开】【始】【研】【究】【起】【了】，【从】【奥】【丁】【宝】【库】【之】【中】【得】【来】【的】【宝】【物】。 【首】【先】【当】【然】【是】【第】【一】【件】【选】【到】
“【所】【以】，【这】【个】【护】【法】”【洛】【羽】【说】【着】，【程】【诺】【点】【点】【头】，【这】【事】【就】【这】【么】【定】【下】【了】。 【虽】【然】【作】【风】，【确】【实】【不】【是】【很】【容】【易】【接】【受】，【但】【目】【前】【也】【就】【只】【能】【这】【样】【了】。 【后】【面】【时】【间】【长】【了】，【在】【想】【办】【法】【改】【掉】。 【当】【然】，【不】【是】【程】【诺】【要】【求】【认】【可】【的】，【是】【给】【她】【讲】【了】【一】【下】【自】【己】【的】【看】【法】【之】【类】【的】，【让】【她】【同】【意】【的】。 【虽】【然】【说】【要】【完】【全】【排】【除】【其】【中】【没】【有】【个】【人】【感】【情】，【是】【不】
【全】【球】【整】【个】【地】【下】【世】【界】【存】【在】【着】【数】【不】【清】【的】【组】【织】，【其】【中】【实】【力】【最】【强】【的】【是】【五】【个】【地】【位】【超】【然】【的】【组】【织】。 【它】【们】【五】【个】【也】【是】【唯】【一】【被】【公】【认】【达】【到】S【级】【的】【组】【织】！ 【北】【欧】【的】【异】【能】【者】【协】【会】，【神】【秘】【的】【暗】【黑】【圣】【教】，【美】【洲】【的】【骷】【髅】【会】，【恐】【怖】【的】【地】【狱】【军】【团】、【以】【及】【华】【夏】【的】【龙】【魂】！ 【而】【作】【为】【暗】【地】【里】【守】【护】【着】【华】【夏】【的】S【级】【组】【织】，【龙】【魂】，【其】【最】【高】【层】【便】【是】【战】【力】【超】【群】【而】【又】【相】【当】【神】【秘】
【高】【山】【之】【巅】，【朱】【君】【竹】【的】【本】【体】【与】【身】【外】【化】【身】【这】【两】【具】【身】【躯】【都】【渡】【过】【了】【第】【二】【重】【天】【劫】【之】【雷】，【接】【下】【来】，【自】【然】【就】【是】【渡】【第】【三】【重】【天】【劫】【之】【雷】【了】。 “【轰】【隆】【隆】……” “【噼】【里】【啪】【啦】……” 【很】【快】，【第】【三】【重】【天】【劫】【之】【雷】【在】【天】【空】【之】【上】【的】【紫】【云】【之】【中】【凝】【聚】【完】【成】，【继】【而】，【散】【发】【出】【一】【股】【气】【势】【汹】【汹】【的】【天】【威】，【便】【对】【着】【下】【方】【的】【朱】【君】【竹】【本】【体】【与】【身】【外】【化】【身】【轰】【砸】【而】【下】。 【第】
【娜】【塔】【莎】【好】【奇】【地】【看】【着】【前】【面】【的】【陈】【子】【良】【和】【杨】【青】，【和】【菲】【力】【用】【蛇】【人】【的】【语】【言】【交】【流】。 “【人】【类】【还】【真】【是】【奇】【怪】【啊】！【男】【女】【交】【尾】【不】【是】【为】【了】【传】【宗】【接】【代】【吗】？【他】【们】【怎】【么】【感】【觉】【那】【么】【复】【杂】？” “【确】【实】【是】【啊】！【好】【像】【人】【类】【对】【于】【男】【女】【之】【间】【的】【所】【谓】【爱】【情】，【看】【得】【比】【生】【命】【还】【重】【要】！”【菲】【力】【也】【是】【迷】【惑】【不】【解】。 “【而】【且】【人】【类】【是】【一】【夫】【一】【妻】【制】，【所】【以】【主】【人】【只】【有】【一】【位】【主】【母】。【不】
【阎】【北】【城】【又】【岂】【能】【听】【得】【进】【去】，【一】【想】【到】【如】【今】【怀】【有】【身】【孕】【的】【陌】【上】【花】【竟】【被】【宝】【荣】【帝】【当】【做】【了】【威】【胁】【自】【己】【的】【筹】【码】，【他】【便】【心】【急】【如】【焚】，【根】【本】【不】【能】【冷】【静】【下】【来】【思】【考】。 “【让】—【开】。”【阎】【北】【城】【眸】【中】【闪】【过】【一】【抹】【杀】【意】，【嗓】【音】【冰】【冷】【彻】【骨】。 【赵】【威】【已】【然】【感】【觉】【到】【阎】【北】【城】【身】【上】【的】【杀】【意】，【却】【仍】【是】【分】【毫】【不】【退】，“【殿】【下】【若】【是】【要】【硬】【闯】，【便】【请】【恕】【末】【将】【无】【礼】。” 【便】【是】【阎】【北】【城】【的】
“【咳】【咳】，【那】【是】【狗】【窦】。”【安】【利】【都】【欠】【好】【意】【义】【说】【出】【来】。 “【我】【去】！”【金】【飞】【刹】【时】【不】【高】【兴】【了】，【狗】【窦】？【让】【我】【去】【钻】【狗】【窦】，【这】【辈】【子】【只】【活】【了】【不】【敷】【十】【年】，【奈】【何】【能】【钻】【狗】【窦】【呢】？ “【小】【兄】【弟】，【要】【晓】【得】【成】【大】【事】【者】【不】【顾】【外】【表】，【当】【今】【临】【时】【的】【忍】【受】【会】【培】【养】【巨】【大】【的】【未】【来】，【人】【们】【只】【会】【记】【着】【胜】【利】【者】【的】【光】【辉】，【至】【于】【这】【历】【程】【没】【有】【人】【想】【晓】【得】，【小】【兄】【弟】【好】【好】【想】【一】【想】。”【安】
【迪】【米】【特】【利】·【马】【克】【西】【莫】【夫】【的】【手】【一】【点】【也】【不】【像】【他】【那】【健】【壮】【的】【身】【材】。 【五】【指】【修】【长】，【骨】【节】【分】【明】。 【不】【去】【剥】【核】【桃】【可】【惜】【了】。 【马】【尔】【斯】【在】【心】【里】【嘀】【咕】【一】【声】，【转】【头】【看】【向】【史】【蒂】【夫】，【皱】【眉】【道】：“【感】【觉】【有】【点】【不】【对】【劲】。” 【史】【蒂】【夫】【微】【微】【一】【笑】，【道】：“【对】【方】【拿】【出】【了】【态】【度】，【我】【们】【也】【该】【拿】【出】【我】【们】【的】【态】【度】，【能】【友】【好】【解】【决】【再】【好】【不】【过】。” 【说】【着】，【史】【蒂】【夫】【走】【了】